Bone loss in the jawbone is common when one or more teeth have been lost due to injury, decay, or trauma. Without the tooth in place to stimulate the jawbone, the bone around the missing tooth begins to deteriorate. Over time, the jawbone may deteriorate to such an extent that there is not enough bone to place dental implants. In cases such as these, your dentist may recommend having a bone grafting procedure
Autogenousgrafts take bone from one area of the patient’s body and transplant it to the location in the mouth being restored. The bone is usually taken from non-essential bones such as the chin. The benefit of an autogenous bone graft is that the bone used comes solely from the patient reducing the likelihood of rejection and infection. The bone is also still “live,” meaning it still has active cellular material . Allograftsalso use human bone transplanted to the area in the mouth being restored. However, allografts do not use the patient’s own bone. Instead, the bone usually comes from cadavers whose bones have been donated to bone banks. All allograft bone material is carefully screened and is considered very safe . Xenograftsalso replace bone in the area requiring treatment; however, the bone comes from a non-human source. Usually the non-human source is bovine (cow). Allografts and xenografts are used because they do not require a second surgical site to harvest bone, and ample amounts of bone can be easily attained .